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Lesson 6: pwT 6: icVIAwGr nMU vyKxw
Chirheeaaghar noon vekhnhaa)

Many Animal names are familiar, such as Hathi for Elephant, and Sher for Tiger ( For example in the Jungle Books), but most of the world’s creatures live outside of India, and therefore outside the Punjabi experience. For most cases the English words have been adopted, such as Penguin. In other cases research is still ongoing, and new words are daily absorbed into the language. As this course is aimed at the international audience all the Diaspora experiences all over the world are combined to make the creatures we meet interesting. This also gives us a chance to learn “What Is..”, and an introduction to a few verbs. My specialist area is the development of new words. It is advisable that at this point the learner should invest in a good Punjabi Dictionary such as Punjabi-English Complied by Dr K.K Goswami.

1.  The Zoo. icVIAwGr]

Mr Sartaj Singh has taken some children to visit a zoo to help improve their Punjabi skills. The Zoo consists of Mammals, Reptiles and Birds. It also has an Aquariam.

srqwj isMG: ieh iekvyrIAm hY] ies ivc sB iksm dIAW m~CIAW hn[
Sartaj Singh: Eh eikavereeam hai. Ish vich sabh kisam deeaan muchcheeaan han.
Sartaj Singh: This is an Aquarium. It has all types of Fish.

jwsimn: ieh kI hY[
Jasmine: Eh kee hai?
Jasmine: What is this?

sihj: ieh Aspwdw hY[ ’qy auh hY aurkw-vyHl[
Saihaj: Eh Espaadaa hai. Te ou hai Orca-Vehl.
Saihaj: This is a Swordfish. And that is a Killer Whale!

isrqwj isMG: jI hW, ies tYNk ivc smuMdr dy v~fy Aqy Coty jIv jMqU hn[
Sartaj Singh: Jee Hai. Eis taink vich samundar de vade ate chote jeeoure hai.
Sartaj Singh: Yes, sir. This tank contains the sea’s largest and smallest creatures.

idlvIr: aus m~CI dw kI nwm hY?
Dilveer: Ous Mucchee daa kee naam hai?
Dilveer: What is the name of that fish?

isrqwj isMG: auh CotI m~CI  bokrAns hY[ dUsrI m~CI hY kOf, ‘qy ieh hY imVU[
Sartaj Singh: Ous chotee muchchcee hai baukaronas. Dusree muchchee hai cod, ‘te eh hai merhoo.
Sartaj Singh: That small fish is a Herring. The second fish is cod, and this is a Sea Bass.

sihj: qrUcw dy ip~Cy auh ikhVy jIv hn?
Saihaj: taroochaa de pichche ouh kihre jeev hai?.
Saihaj: What are those creatures behind that Trout?

isrqwj isMG: auh hn krsqySIn JINgy[ pihlw hY kykVw, dUjI hY qwrw-m~CI, ‘qy auh robwlO ip~Cy hY qMdUAw[ smuMdr ivc bhuq iksm dIAW JINgw-m~CIA hn[ lM|sqw qo GmBws q`k] AwE, mgr-m~C Aqy GiVAwl nUM vI dyKIey[
Sartaj Singh: Oh hai karasteshen jeenghe. Pelaa hai kekrha, dujaa hai tara-muchchee, ‘te uh roballo pichche hai tundooaa. Samundar vich bahat kishamde jeengha-muchcheea hai. Langgausataa too ghambhass taak. Aaoh, assee Magar-Muchch ate Ghrhiahaal ve deknhaa.
Sartaj Singh: They are Crustesians. The first is a crab, the second one is a star fish and the one behind the haddock is an octopus. There are many varities of crayfish in the sea. From lobsters to prawns. Come on, let’s see the crocodiles and the alligators.

We will return back to the zoo trip. Let us first look at Punjabi verbs.

2 The Verb - ikirAw Kiriaa

Basic Verbs in any language consist of 1st Person, 2nd Person and 3rd person. There is the possessive particle, possessive adjectives, masculine and feminine with plural objects. Possesion in Punjabi is through dw , Daa, which is like the English apostrophe ‘s. It is as follows:

dw daa Masc Singular, dy de Masc Plural,
dI dee Fem Singular, dIAW deeaan Fem Plural

What would be a preposition in English, such as “from” , is in Punjabi a postposition, and as the name implies follows the word. Daa also assists word order, as can be seen below.

iqqlI dy KMB  Titli de khamb The Butterfly’s Wings

ghyfy dw kMfw Gaheda daa kundaa The Porcupine’s Thorn

lwvw-kIVI dw Dwgw  Lava Keerhee dee Dhaaga The Caterpiller’s Thread.

All verbs will always start as below:

1st Person Masculine Possessive

myry   Mere   My

swfy   Sade   Our

2nd Person Masculine Possessive

qyry   tere Your  (Informal)

quhwfy  tuhaade  Your   (Formal)

3rd Person Masculine Possessive

ieh dy / ies dy  ih de/ is de    His / Her

iehnW dy ihnaan de    His / Her / Their   (Formal)

auh dy / aus dy    uh de/ us de   His / Her

auhnW dy    uhnaan de     His / Her / Their    (Formal)

1st Person Feminine Possessive

myrIAW   Mereeaan     My

swfIAW   Sadeeaan    Our

2nd Person Feminine Possessive

qyrIAW   tereeaan    Your   (Informal)

quhwfIAW    tuhaadeeaan    Your   (Formal)

3rd Person Feminine Possessive

ieh dIAW / ies dIAW   ih deeaan/ is deeaan    His / Her

iehnW dIAW    ihnaan deeaan     His / Her / Their    (Formal)

auh dIAW / aus dIAW    uh deeaan/ us deeaan     His / Her

auhnW dIAW   uhnaan deeaan    His / Her / Their    (Formal)

Present Tense

Singular Masculine

mYN bYTw hW       main baithaa haan     I sit
qUM bYTw hYN      toon baithaa haan       you sit
ieh/auh bYTw hY    ih/uh baithaa haan     He, She, They sit

Singular Feminine

mYN bYTI hW   main baithee haan   I sit
qUM bYTI hYN    toon baithee haan   you sit
ieh/auh bYTI hY   ih/uh baithee haan    He, She, They sit

In summary it is 1st person singular + the verb + auxiliary, 1st person singular =    mYN bYTI hW

Plural Masculine

AsIN bYTy hW    aseen baithaa haan    we sit
qusIN bYTy ho    tuseen baithaa ho     you sit
ieh/auh bYTy hn    ih/uh baithaa han    He, She, They sit

Plural Feminine

AsIN bYTIAW hW    aseen baithaa haan    we sit
qusIN bYTIAW hoN    tuseen baithaa ho       you sit
ieh/auh bYTIAW hn   ih/uh baithaa han    He, She, They sit

So again, it is : subject + object + simple present + auxiliary = present tense

Simple postpositions include, vich, in, ton, from, te, on, tak , til, naal, with and noon.
There is also the present continous tense. For example:

Simple present

mYN PYktrI ivc kMm krdw hW   Ma phactaree vich kanm kardaa haan   I work in a factory

Present continuous

mYN PYktrI ivc kMm kr irhw hW  Ma phactaree vich kanm kar rihaa haan   I am working in a factory

More verb work in later lessons. Let’s return to Sartaj Singh’s tour of the Zoo.

3  The Zoo. icVIAwGr

isrqwj isMG: ieh pMCIAW dw ipMjrw hY[ ies ivc sB iksm dIAW icVIAW hn[ auh hY rwj–hMs, ‘qy auh hY bulbul[ AmrIkw qoN suiliglj, kuldynylw Aqy Xogwnylw[ ieMglYNf qoN hY koko ‘qy &yswn[ auh hY gOlnv Aqy huhU]

Sartaj Singh: ih pancche daa parinda hai. Is vich sabh kisamdeeaa chirheeaa hai. Oh hai raj hans, te oh hai balbal. Amreekaa toon suligilj , kuladelela ate yogaanelaa. Inglaind toon hai kaukau te faisaan. Oh see golanv te huhu.

Sartaj Singh: This is the bird's avery cages. In this are many types of birds. There is a Swan, and there is a nithingale. America’s Bluebird and bluejays and buzzards. England’s Robin and pheasants. There is a raven and there a mockingbird.

jsimn: kI AsIN aUT, Syr Aqy bx-mwxs dyK skdy Aw ?
Jasmin:  kee Asseen oonth, sher ate Ban-mans dek sakdeaa?
Jasmine: Can we see the camel, liom and Gorilla?

sihj: jI hW! mY PnIAr s~p Aqy hwQI vI dyKxw hY[
Saihaj: Jee haa! Maa Phineer Sapp ate hathi vee dekna hai.
Saihaj: Yes Please! I would like to see a cobra and elephant too.

isrqwj isMG: jI hW, AwE[
Sartaj Singh: Jee Hai. Aao
Sartaj Singh: Yes, come on.

I would like to thank Gurtej Singh of New Zealand for his assistance on lesson six.

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