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Lesson 3: it~pI Tippee ('M'), ibMdI Bindee ('N'), and A~Dk Adhak ('~')
it~pI  ('M')
AMb  aanb  mango
AMgUr  aangoor  grapes
pqMg  patung  kite
KMf  khund  sugar
muMfw  mundaa  boy
bMdUk  bundook  rifle
rMbw  runbaa  trowel
suMdr  sundar  pretty
mMjw  munjaa  bed
qMdUr  tundoor  clay oven
fMfw  dundaa  pole / staff
sMqrw  santraa  orange

ibMdI   ('N')
kW  kaan   crow
 gW  gaan   cow
bWh  baanh   arm
kuVIAW  kurheeaan   girls
CW  chaan   shade
roNdw  roandaa   crying
icVIAW  chirheeaan   starlings
nINd  neend   sleepy
QW  thaan   place
muMdIAN  mundian   rings
cUVIAW  choorheeaan   bangles
Note that a vowel accent can not be followed by another vowel accent, so one of the three vowel letters are placed in between as can be seen in the plural words icVIAW and muMifAW[

A~Dk  ('~')
A`K akhkh eye
mC`r machchcar mosquito
iq`qr tittar partridge
p`Qr   paththar rock
im`qr mittar mate / pal
n`k naak nose
l`kV lakkar wood ( not forest)
h`Q hathth hand
ik`l kill nail
p`t patt thigh
F`kx dhakkanh lid
k`pVy kapparhe clothes
f`fU daddoo frog
ic`TI chiththee correspondence / letter
n`t natt run
au`lU oulloo owl
A`g aagg fire
iC`l chill peel
inrMkwr nirankaar formless / god

aupr ilKy SbdW nMU pVH ky, hyTw ilKy SbdW nMU it`pI, ibMdI Aqy A`Dk nwl TIk kro.
Read the words written above then attach a Tippee, Bindee and Adhak to the words below.
Ab pqg kw bwh iqqr
lkV rbw qdr Qw hQ
nId rodw nt kpVy Fkx
Cw icUVIAw sqrw sudr

pYrI rwrw Aqy pYrI hwhw: Pairee ' r' and Pairee ' h'.
pYrI rwrw
pRym prem love
kRoD krodh wrath
gRMQ granth scripture
pRxwm pranaam hello ( respect)
pRkwS prakaash light
pRSn prashan anxious
pYrI hwhw
pVH parhh read / educated
pVHnw parhhnaa to read
KolH kholh open ( present tense)
mlHm malham spatula

aupr ilKy SbdW nMU iDAwn nwl vyKo Aqy hyTW vwly SbdW dy pYr hwhw jW rwrw joV ky shI kro[
Read the words written above then attach a haahaa and raaraa to the words below.









As can be seen in the above exercise (AiBAws), some of the accents in Punjabi have a specific effect. The adhak (  ~  ) doubles a sound, somewhat like the English word little. Here the first syllable ends with a t , and the second begins with a t . Another way to look at it is that you first enter the syllable with a t , and then exit with it, thus repeating the sound. The Punjabi word for dance is a good example. n~c (nachch) , is pronounced a bit like the first syllable in nachos, but subtly repeating the ch sound again. Another example is Delhi, pronounced dillee and spelt (id~lI). Thus it works like coped and copper.

The bindee ( N ) and tippee ( M ) also have unique effects. They nasalise specific words. There is a variation from totally nasalised to a rounded n. The tippee is almost like a 'un' as in under. It is employed with the Muktaa, Sihaaree, Aunkarh and Dalainkarhe, as seen in the above exercise. The bindee works with Laanv, Dulannvan, Bihaaree, Kannaa, Horahaa and Kanaarhaa. Examine the section related to these in the exercise above again.

In the next lesson we'll learn about the some of the Basic Greetings and the Punjabi Sentence Word Order.

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Awpxy ivcwr swnUM ilKo